In this condition bones become weak and spongy with age. The mass and strength of bones is lost and it increases the risk of fractures. There is a chance of fracture even if you have any coughing problem. Bones are made up of calcium, when body needs energy it cause remolding of bones for the generation of energy and due to this bones become porous and weak in this condition. Mostly this condition starts in age of 50 but it varies in the different races. It is more common in the Asian women. Most of osteoporosis starts in women in the age of 35-45 because calcium depletion start at this age. A lot of the people suffer from osteoporosis worldwide.

Sign and symptoms:

1.     Pain start in bones mostly in back side of the body

2. Fractures are more common

3. Cramps start mostly in the lower area

4. General weakness in the body

5. Decrease mass in the body

6. Height of the body become less due to compression of disk

7. Posture of the body changes

Causes and Risk factors for osteoporosis:

1. In the young adult, body makes bones faster than older people. Body’s bone mass is at its peak point at the age of 30. After this age, process gets slower and mass of the bones deceases with age.

2. There are risk factors for developing osteoporosis, some are modifiable and other are non modifiable. In non modifiable risk factors, sex is most important one because it is more common in women. It is common in white and Asian people as compared to African Americans. Family history is important in osteoporosis. Obesity is one of the risk factor of osteoporosis.

3. Hormones level in body effect the osteoporosis activity. If you have low sex hormones than you have more chances of developing osteoporosis which means if you have a low level of testosterone in body due to any kind of disease then you have more risk of developing osteoporosis. Thyroid level in body also causes osteoporosis activity in some people.

4. There are some dietary changes linked to the development of osteoporosis. If you have low calcium intake as compared to demand of the body then needed calcium is achieved from the bones.

5. Any kind of GIT surgeries can decrease the absorption of calcium and other minerals due to decreased surface area for absorption of nutrients. It may lead to osteoporosis. Smoking and alcohol consumption can lead to osteoporosis

6. Several types of medical conditions are also linked to osteoporosis e.g inflammatory bowel disease, any kidney and liver disease and cancer.

Management and treatment:

The best therapy of this disease is to exercise because it make bones stronger and correct the posture of your body. Exercise makes our immune system stronger and helps to prevent many diseases in the body. Quitting cigarette smoking and limiting the use of alcohol is also helpful in preventing osteoporosis. Several medications are used for osteoporosis which include biphosphates (Ibandronate, Risedronate). These drugs increase bone density in some extent. Denosumab is also used to increase bone density. Hormone replacement therapy is used for this, especially for the women after the menopause and it can help in maintaining the bone density.

Complications of Osteoporosis:

All the complications are related with bones. Your mobility of body decrease because you cannot bear weight of body and it results in weight gain. It causes heart diseases and diabetes in people due to lack of physical activity of body. lack of physical activity can also lead to depression. Permanent pain in back of body starts.